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Two Vietnamese are in the top 100 typical Asian scientists in 2019

Two Vietnamese scientists were voted for their outstanding achievements in the field of biomedical research.

List of 100 typical scientists of Asia just published by Asian Scientist Science Magazine named two Vietnamese scientists including Prof. Nguyen Thanh Liem (Vinmec Stem Cell Research and Gene Technology Institute) and TS. Nguyen Thi Hiep (International University, Vietnam National University, HCMC). Persons recognized on this list must have national or international awards in 2018 for important scientific research or leadership in academia or industry.

Prof. Nguyen Thanh Liem is credited with many achievements, being the first stem cell surgeon to treat cerebral palsy and autism in Vietnam; Direct surgery of 5 conjoined twins is more difficult than 15 years ago. He also has nearly 100 scientific works in international journals in the US and Europe. The most recent is the research published on Vietnamese gene sequencing. Prof. Nguyen Thanh Liem has been awarded the Asian Nikkei Prize for Science and Technology.

The second scientist is enrolled as Dr. Nguyen Thi Hiep, who is currently the Head of the Biomedical Engineering Department at International University. Dr. Hiep was awarded L’Oréal – UNESCO award for outstanding female scientists under 40 in 2018 for researching the glue that can be used to treat different types of wounds, kill bacteria and reduce regeneration time. tissue. She has also been awarded the first ASEAN-US – 2017 Award for Solutions to Reduce Pressure on Rapid Urbanization – Public Health, ASEAN-2017.

This is the fourth year Asian Scientist magazine has voted and published a list of leading scientists in the region with research, innovation and significant contributions in many fields. So far, Vietnam has had 7 scientists in the list of votes of Asian Scientist.

Discovered the “path of love” where 5 human species mate

A road from Africa across Eurasia has revealed evidence of the extraordinary love between us modern humans and at least 4 ancient species of extinction.

New research by the Australian Ancient DNA Center at the University of Adelaide (Australia) redraws the map of a historical path that our Homo sapiens ancestors traveled 50,000-55,000 years ago, leaving Africa to other promising lands on the Eurasian continent. More specifically, that path marks countless love species of theirs and other homin belonging to the extinct species of his genus.According to the main author – Dr. João Teixeira, a group of adults from Central – North Central Africa has left their homeland to the north. In present-day Egypt, this group splits into two branches, one heading toward present-day Algeria, one moving to the Middle East and meeting Neaderthals in present-day Saudi Arabia – Iraq. Many heterosexual marriages happened. The Neaderthals became extinct shortly after (about 30,000-50,000 years ago) but they managed to leave their lineage in the genome of ancient Homo sapiens.

After that, the ancestors, with many individuals having crossed Neanderthals, split into two groups, one going towards Europe and staying, one moving to Southeast Asia. On the way, in today’s Iran-Pakistan region, our ancestors met a mysterious extinct species, temporarily called “Hominin extinct 1”, mixed with blood again.

This group continues on to what is probably near the border of today’s Myanmar Myanmar, branching again. The group heads north to meet the extinct Denisovans, which reside in present-day Tibet, and fall in love again.

The group turns south across Southeast Asia – which may have once remained a strip of land – to the area of Indonesia. They are called Australo – Papuan, ancestors of present-day Indonesians and Australians. The group met again and fell in love with another group of Denisovans.

Their descendants continue to split. A group with similar genetic characteristics to Filipinos now moves to the Philippines and mate with the Denisovans again; while the group headed towards Australia and on their way across the area around the island of Flores in present-day Indonesia, they mingled with the unidentified fourth extinct humanity, known as “extinct Hominin 2”.

The exciting research has just been published in the journal PNAS.

Magical mental health effects of enchanted youth drinks

A delicious green drink can be a golden key to helping treat anxiety, a fairly common and complex mental health problem.

Scientists from Kumamoto University (Japan) have proven that their country’s famous matcha tea powder not only makes delicious drinks but also good for health. Experiments in mice show that it directly affects two important neurochemicals and is a powerful anti-anxiety agent.

Matcha is the ingredient that has made many popular drinks over time – (artwork from the internet).

According to Dr. Yuki Kurauchi, MD, lead author of the study, in animal experiments, matcha has shown a direct effect on the two dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the brain, helping them function. stronger. These are the two systems that help produce dopamine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitters.

Dopamine, dubbed the “happy hormone”, increases dopamine to help us feel happy, satisfied, motivated in all life activities, boosting the brain … Meanwhile, abundant serotonin helps you increase ability to regulate mood and appetite, sleep better, increase awareness … Deficiency of these two hormones can lead to low mood, ease anxiety and even anxiety disorders, a fairly complex syndrome journal in psychiatry.

Matcha is a famous Japanese green tea powder, the leaves of green tea (tea) are finely ground. Green tea plants used to make matcha must be grown under 90% shade and cared for in a special way by indigenous people. Matcha is often used to make a variety of drinks and is also a material for coloring, flavoring for food.

Dr. Kurachi added that in order to make a more positive assertion, an epidemiological study on humans is needed. However, the evidence they have collected is sufficient to show that matcha brings certain benefits to human health.

The research has just been published in the scientific journal Journal of Functional Foods.

Warming water, California’s offshore sea “white shark park”

Scientists suspect warming temperatures may explain the presence of white sharks in Monterey Bay, California.

A large group of white sharks have settled along the central coast of California, captivating seafarers, residents, local media and scientists.

Marine biologists are investigating why sharks – the world’s largest predatory fish – ventured to California’s Monterey Bay.

Adult white sharks usually reside in warm waters in southern California, near the US-Mexico border. But these fish have been wandering northward over the past few years, leading to their frequent appearance in Monterey Bay since 2014.

Scientists suspect warming oceans may play a role in the shark’s surprising shifts.

“White sharks are heat-resistant – they have a warmer internal temperature, making them more like mammals than fish. Especially when born, they must be in the golden temperature range not too hot, not too cold, “Sal Jorgensen, a senior researcher on the Pacific white shark at Monterey Bay Aquarium, told Guardian.

Together with researchers at local universities, Jorgensen is tagging and tracking white sharks, to better understand how these ancient, large sea predators deal with climate change. .

He said that warming ocean temperatures – due to a climate crisis – may have drawn sharks to areas previously too cold to live comfortably.

A group of young sharks migrating to Monterey Bay have caused some warnings. Local media sent reporters on helicopters to record their images. Travel boat companies started offering shark watching trips.

Experts say the group causes little danger to humans. Adult white sharks, which can reach up to 6 meters long, are the pinnacle of prey to hunt marine mammals such as sea lions and seals. Juveniles are smaller than half, eating only fish and small squid.

Many of the protections enacted in the mid-1990s in California have helped the local white shark population thrive, although scientists are still studying the exact size and trend of the individual.

A 2011 study estimated that 219 adult white sharks live off the coast of Central California. This species is classified as a vulnerable group on the IUCN International Red List (IUCN).

The North Pole is burning intensely, and the fire is so large it is visible from outer space

The Arctic, though warming in recent years, is nonetheless one of the coldest places on the planet with ice all around. The thing is, when we went through the record-breaking June, then … oh my god, believe it, the North Pole is literally catching fire.

In areas from Greenland through Siberia and Alaska, flames are spreading, pushing giant smoke columns across the upper part of the Northern Hemisphere, creating a stuffy atmosphere.

It is known that the story took place in early June, when more than 100 fires broke out and burned the bushes around the Arctic belt. In Russia, 11 of the 49 areas are currently in fire. With an unusually hot, dry summer, even the icy Greenland is currently burning for days. And you know what, that fire could even be seen from space, through satellite systems.

In fact, the fact that the Arctic has a fire is not too rare, because it has a pretty rich bush system. In addition, there are many frozen waters here where methane is trapped inside, so if handled well, it can create fiery ice.

However, in recent years, things are getting worse due to the consequences of climate change. Currently, the number of fires with extreme intensity is very large.

According to Thomas Smith, an environmental geologist from the London School of Economics, this year’s intensity is unprecedented for a total of 16 years of satellite data collection. Fires are gradually reaching carbon stocks, and can make the climate warmer.

“This is one of the largest fires on the planet, even some places larger than 100,000ha” – Smith said.

“The amount of CO2 emitted from the Arctic belt in June 2019 is greater than what is emitted from ALL fires in the same period from 2010-2018.”

Even unburnt areas are suffering. As noted by NASA’s Earth Observatory, there is now a huge pillar of smoke covering Russia, causing the air quality in major cities to drop dramatically.

Experts estimate that without preventive action, the consequences of these fires will be devastating, especially for the current climate change.

Those who sacrifice for the success of the Apollo program

The Apollo program of putting people on the moon is the result of the efforts and silent sacrifices of hundreds of thousands of people.

July 20, 1969 marked in the history of mankind when the Apollo 11 landed on the Moon. For Neil Armstrong to place the American flag on the surface of the Moon, making the first footprint on it, a well-researched plan, operated by thousands of people. This special program also has many memorable numbers.

Neil Armstrong planted an American flag on the surface of the Moon. (Photo: NASA).

400,000 people support one person
Neil Armstrong is one of NASA’s outstanding pilots. When he landed on the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, the first successful or failed landing all depended on the man’s skill, reaction ability and proficiency. With the gravel fields ahead, the alarm ringing and the fuel running out, Armstrong drove the spacecraft to the ground.

But in a number of conversations and interviews about the landing, Armstrong has always been modest when it comes to this historic achievement. Instead, he emphasized that hundreds of thousands of people contributed to the success of the program.

NASA estimates that a total of 400,000 men and women across the US participate in the Apollo program, from astronauts, flight control specialists, contractors to food suppliers, engineers, and scientists. learn, doctor, nurse, mathematician and programmer.

Flight control specialists follow the journey of Apollo 11.

Viewed from Apollo 11 flight – a flight to help people land on the Moon. Not only did Armstrong receive Buzz Aldrin’s support aboard the ship, there was also a room filled with flight control specialists. In each shift, in addition to the core team of about 20-30 people, there are hundreds of engineers in Houston and experts at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston are on call for advice whenever the computer issues an alarm.

The flight control center is supported by ground communication stations around the world, a team of engineers who make the landing craft at Grumman Group and all subcontractors. Besides, there is a support team from senior managers to coffee sellers, the number has reached thousands. Multiply that number by every other part of the project (rocket, astronaut suit, communications, fuel, design, training, from launching to returning to Earth …). 400,000 people still seem modest. All of these have supported the single man’s action.

Average age of Apollo astronauts: 38
Armstrong was not a specially selected pilot for his first moon landing, his crew was the next option in the rotation. If the Apollo 11 can not land, it is likely that Pete Conrad, commander of the Apollo 12, will be the first man to land on the Moon. In fact, despite representing the entire human race, the Apollo astronauts have the same age, biography, competence, and training.

“In my opinion it is important that we remember how unique and carefully selected the Apollo project team is,” said Teasel Muir-Harmony, who is in charge of displaying the Apollo spacecraft in Bao. Smithsonian National Aerospace Museum in Washington DC, shared. Each member of the Apollo 11 crew was born in 1930, they used to be in the army, were pilots.

At that time Armstrong was 38, the youngest co-commander on the Apollo ship (along with Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan). Charlie Duke, the 36-year-old pilot of the Apollo 16 landing craft, is the youngest man to land on the Moon. The oldest person to walk on the Moon was astronaut Alan Shepard, flying aboard Apollo 14 in 1971. Shepard was 47 years old.

12 astronauts once set foot and drove on the Moon

There are 33 astronauts on flights during the Apollo Moon landing program. Among them, 27 people fly to the Moon, 24 people orbit the Moon but only 12 people set foot on the surface. They represent “humanity” and face the challenge of transmitting that experience to a global audience.

8 NASA astronauts died during the Apollo program
Before the first three crew of the Apollo 7 mission departed in October 1968, eight astronauts on the Apollo program were killed. The first man who died in 1964 was Theodore Freeman when his plane, the T-38 trainer, hit a bird, broke the cockpit cover and the engine stopped working. Despite his escape, Freeman was too close to the ground and died due to the impact.

On February 28, 1966, the main crew for the mission Gemini 9, Elliot See and Charles Bassett prepared to land the T-38 aircraft on St Louis. Due to cloudiness obscuring the runway, See misplaced a turn and crashed into the building where their spacecraft was being built. Two pilots were killed instantly.

In 1967, NASA prepared to launch the first Apollo. But the spacecraft is constantly broken and commander Gus Grissom knows it. In an uncomfortable mood, he hung a lemon outside the Apollo ship simulator in Cape Canaveral base.

On January 27, 1967, the crew, including Grissom, Ed White (the first American to walk in space) and Roger Chaffee, lay in the seats on the launch pad to test the entire spacecraft. The test has failed. Within seconds, flames burned up the crew.

Later that year, Clifton Williams died in another T-38 crash and Edward Givens died in a traffic accident. All eight astronauts and six Soviet astronauts were commemorated with a stele left by the Apollo 15 crew on the Moon.

Only one woman was present in the control room of the Apollo 11 launch
The equipment control specialist, JoAnn Morgan, is the only woman in the control room of the Apollo 11 launch at Cape Canaveral base. As an engineer, a 21-channel guest lady as well as the stability of all Saturn missile tracking systems 5. “Launching is a controlled explosion. You are always a little scared but you still have to watch it, “Morgan said.

As one of the few women in senior positions, Morgan regularly faced gender discrimination, especially when she started the job. “I received obscene calls, some rude comments in the elevator and the touches in the dining area. After a while, most of those actions were gone because people realized I worked really hard. serious, “recounted Morgan.

Thien Cung 2 space station re-enters the atmosphere, “controlled destruction”

China’s Thien Cung 2 space station entered Earth’s atmosphere successfully on July 18 under controlled conditions, it was destroyed and debris fell to the South Pacific.

The space station has completed the final test phase of Beijing’s ambitious space-conquering program.

The space station or Thien Cung 2 was launched into orbit in 2016 and returned to Earth’s atmosphere at about 21h06 (local time) in control, according to the China Manned Space Engineering Office. (CMSA).

Some fragments of the space station have fallen into “predefined safe waters” in the South Pacific.

Xinhua says the station has been in orbit for more than 1,000 days, much longer than its two-year “life expectancy”.

Zhou Jianping, the chief designer of China’s manned space program, told Xinhua that entering controlled atmosphere of the Earth marks all the missions planned by Thien Cung 2. was successful.

Earlier, Thien Cung 1 station was launched into orbit in September 2011. However, it was almost completely burnt during the process of entering the Earth’s atmosphere and crashed in the South Pacific region in April 2018.

Now Beijing’s resources will be concentrated on the space station under construction. The station will become the only space station in orbit, after ISS (International Space Station) retires in 2024, although it will be much smaller than ISS. ISS weighs 400 tons and is as big as a football field.

In 2003, China became the third country in the world to send people to space after the Soviet Union and the United States. Beijing sees this as a turning point marking the stature of a global superpower.

The Japanese expert plans not to let the water wash away the results of the To Lich river

Japanese experts considered the method during the rainy season, when the West Lake water was discharged, it was not carried away to wash the experimental results of the To Lich river cleaning.

As expected, after 2 months, Nhat Viet Environment Improvement Joint Stock Company (JVE) will report to Prime Minister, People’s Committee of Hanoi City on a pilot project to clean a section of To Lich river and a corner of West Lake by technology. Nano – Japanese Bioreactor.

However, the discharge of more than 1 million cubic meters of water from the West Lake to the To Lich River affected the results, JVE had to apply for a pilot for another 2 months.

After postponing the announcement of results, yesterday, JVE had a press conference by the West Lake to inform about the upcoming pilot plan, the solutions so that the next water discharges and storms do not affect the To Lich river.

15 minutes notice and then flush
Mr. Nguyen Tuan Anh, JVE Chairman, confirmed that he did not receive notification of water discharge directly.

JVE technical staff has received a notification of water discharge at about 9:30 am on July 9, shortly after about 10-15 minutes, Hanoi Sewerage Company conducted the water discharge.

Discharging 1.5 million m3 of West Lake water into To Lich River, Japanese experts could not cope.

According to Mr. Tuan Anh, when receiving the discharge notification, both Japanese experts and JVE were passive, the pilot unit could not respond in 10-15 minutes.

1.5 million m3 / day as in the last flush, is 10 times the amount of water flowing from 280 discharges flowing along the To Lich river. This amount of water does not flow through 280 sluices but only flows into one sluice at the head of the river, exceeding the original estimate of Japanese experts.

Japanese experts have calculated from the beginning, despite the heavy rain, the upstream flow is not as large as the direct discharge of 1.5 million cubic meters of water recently.

Dr Takeba Akira, an advisor at the Japan-Japan Trade and Environment Promotion Organization, said: “With the West Lake water swept away beneficial microorganisms triggered by the Bioreactor plates, we are not responsible for any unit. both, this is an objective

Dr. Takeba Akira.

Regarding the ongoing Lich river cleaning projects, Japanese experts also said that the problem of cleaning the river is not simply the discharge of West Lake water or cleaning with Japanese technology.

According to him, the river must have water for input, which To Lich River now relies entirely on sewage flowing from 280 sluices. Therefore, it is advisable to clean the inside of the river first and then let the water in, increasing both the water flow and creating river flows. Then the beneficial organisms created by the nano machines will be distributed from the beginning to the end of the source.

“2 solutions of drainage company and Japanese expert, if combined, will revive the To Lich river properly”, Mr. Tuan Anh added.

To Lich River piloted another 2 months.

Build “apartment building”, do not allow water to wash away microorganisms
Japanese experts have developed plans so that the Bioreactor placed in the river bed will still activate the microorganisms and retain these creatures, no matter if discharging West Lake water or discharging more strongly, it will not be washed away. result.

“Experimental bodies in the To Lich river are like apartment buildings, microorganisms are the same as the people living in that apartment building. Soon, we will apply the biological measures to prevent the apartment building from being washed away by floodwaters. “

Biotech-applied pallets will help protect
The biofilter media will help protect, prevent water from swept away beneficial microorganisms when draining water.

Regarding operating costs, the Japanese expert confirmed that this project was 100% funded from Japan at the beginning, so even though it lasted for 2 months, Japan continued to sponsor, the Vietnamese side did not have to pay any cost. come on.

Japan is still sponsoring and piloting completely free the To Lich river cleaning project.

incident so we are trying to fix it. “

The photo shows the cruelty of poaching of rare animals

Poaching is a prohibited practice in many countries around the world, as a final effort to protect wildlife from extinction from human greed. But in reality, stopping poachers doesn’t always succeed.

For example, recently, a very horrific picture taken in North Botswana (Africa) shows how failed we are to prevent poaching of rare animals. It is the scene of an African elephant’s body being brutally slaughtered, in order to take away the whole head and the ivory cluster – its most valuable items on the black market.

This photo was taken by photographer Justin Sullivan, residing in Cape Town, South Africa. According to the report, poachers used a chainsaw to cut off the trunk and take away the ivory. The whole body was left there, in the middle of the barren savannah.

Sullivan said he was working on a film for a private company in Botswana, when he suddenly heard the rangers say something about an elephant poaching.

“They said the elephant was attacked, and I immediately asked to go to the scene. When I arrived, I used the drone and obtained this heartbreaking photo,” said the 28-year-old photographer.

“The picture is called” Disconnection “- and it shows an angle you can’t tell when you’re just standing on the ground. Thanks to the drone, the picture highlights the separation between the two parts of the elephant, and also to show that we were too indifferent to this story. “

Notably, Sullivan’s photo appeared just a month after the ban on hunting in Botswana was lifted.

“I’m glad the photo got a lot of attention. Confused emotions happened: anger, grief, mostly for a new hunting ban was lifted in Botswana. But on the other hand, this photo brings the message that we need to build a more sustainable elephant sanctuary, and address the crisis that is currently happening with the ecosystem. “

Sullivan’s photo is very emotional, and was honored to choose to participate in the international press photography Andrei Stenin International. The contest results will be announced at the end of 2019.

In fact, even when the ban was still in place, forest rangers’ statistics showed that poaching on the elephant in Botswana was no better. In the 2017-2018 period alone, about 400 elephants were killed. And in the 2014-2018 period, the number of poached elephants increased to 593%.

According to a new study published in the journal Current Biology, the pressure on conservationists in Botswana will increase after the ban is lifted. “There is evidence that ivory poaching has been taking place at a rate of several hundred each year before 2017. And now the ban has been lifted.” – extracting research reports.

Restoring King Tutankhamun’s coffin for the first time in nearly 100 years

According to a correspondent in Cairo, Egyptian authorities began the process of restoring the largest of King Tutankhamun’s trio of coffins for the first time in nearly a hundred years, after the coffin was transferred to the Great Treasure. Museum of Egypt.

It is the largest and only coffin remaining in the tomb of the young king in Luxor, after two smaller ones were moved to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo in 1922.

This is the largest and the only coffin remaining in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun.

The head of the antiquity restoration department at the Great Egyptian Museum Eissa Zidan said the coffin began to show cracks on the gilded outer layers. The restoration will take at least 8 months and the overall status report has been finalized before it is transferred to the Great Museum of Egypt.

Meanwhile, the Director of Antiquities at the Egyptian Museum Al-Tayeb Abbas announced that the casket will be on display at the Great Egyptian Museum after restoration, along with King Tutankhamun’s treasure collection, including two smaller coffins still on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Thus, when the Great Egyptian Museum is opened in 2020, the three coffins of King Tutankhamun will be displayed for the first time together.

The smallest of these three coffins is made of pure gold, while the other two are made of wood and gold plated.

King Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty and died in 1323 BC. His tomb was first found in the Valley of Kings in Luxor in 1922 and was unearthed by a team of experts, led by Howard Carter, an English archaeologist.

This is considered one of the top monumental tombs in ancient Egypt and also contains many of the most thrilling mysteries.

Why are the letters on the computer keyboard not in alphabetical order?

About 150 years ago, all papers and letters were handwritten with a pen and ink, and about one or two words had to be put in the ink bottle, making writing very slow and easy to get dirty. .

Then a typewriter was born. The first typewriter was made of metal so it was heavy and had a mechanism that worked a bit like a piano, meaning that when you pressed a key, a lever bounced, causing the hammer at the top to type into the string. and make sounds.

Keyboard.

Similarly, at the tip of the typewriter keys are hammers that print the letters. When you press the key with the letter A, the hammer’s hammer heads on the paper and prints the letter A, and the paper inches a little to the left so that the second hammer will type in the space immediately to the right of the A. so you can type a whole word, and if you type a lot, you will get the whole book.

The first typewriter had the same alphabetical order as in the alphabet. The problem is that if you type quickly, two keys side by side are very susceptible, especially if those keys are next to each other. Rearranging the keys reduces the chance that the keys will get stuck.

The American inventor named Christopher Sholes was the most successful when it came to reducing typewriter keys. He tried many arrangements and the best one was similar to the keyboard in the QWERTY order we use today.

Mr. Sholes sold the invention to Remington Company in the US. In the 1870s, the Remington Company produced and sold the first typewriters for commercial purposes. These machines have a QWERTY keyboard.

About 100 years later, so many people typed in the text that it became a professional profession around the world. They use the QWERTY keyboard so familiar that people can hardly change the habit of using the keyboard in a different arrangement.

Besides the QWERTY keyboard, a number of other keyboards were invented and considered easier to learn than the QWERTY keyboard. However, none of them is strong enough to defeat QWERTY.

QWERTY was invented to use the English alphabet. Other languages ​​use other keyboards, such as AZERTY for French, QWERTZ for German, or QZERTY for Italian. You can also see a keyboard used for Indian, Thai, Japanese, Korean or Chinese.