Science

Home Science

Discovered tiny worms capable of emitting … the biggest sound in the ocean

Many people may think this is a strange thing, but the fact that the newly discovered sea worm has the ability to make the loudest sounds ever recorded in the ocean.

When you think of loud sounds, you can imagine screams … separating ears or explosions that make us cry. But what if in the ocean environment? The sea worm, which is only 29mm long, has set the record for researchers to surprise.

The newly discovered sea worm has the ability to make surprising sounds in the ocean.

The base was launched by marine biologist Ryutaro Goto from Kyoto University and colleagues measured the sounds emitted by these worms, which emitted a sound of up to … 157 dB.

In fact, we can hear sounds as low as 10 dB, but about 130 dB of sound can become painful and harm the ear.

“The sound of the newly discovered worm is comparable to the sound made compared to the way the shrimp attack the prey, which is one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea,” researchers explain.

The shrimp mentioned can produce sound intensity of up to 189 dB so that they stun prey, which is enough to break the glass.

The researchers pointed out that mollusks were not known to make a loud sound, at least until the team brought the creatures back to the lab and witnessed small noises. emanating from their mouth.

“A loud bang could be a byproduct of a fast oral attack,” the researchers commented.

In fact, this strange sea worm was only described recently in 2017, and it gouged holes in sponges along Japan’s Pacific coast, where it waits for its prey and aggressively protects the lawn from the opponents.

Discovered the “path of love” where 5 human species mate

A road from Africa across Eurasia has revealed evidence of the extraordinary love between us modern humans and at least 4 ancient species of extinction.

New research by the Australian Ancient DNA Center at the University of Adelaide (Australia) redraws the map of a historical path that our Homo sapiens ancestors traveled 50,000-55,000 years ago, leaving Africa to other promising lands on the Eurasian continent. More specifically, that path marks countless love species of theirs and other homin belonging to the extinct species of his genus.According to the main author – Dr. João Teixeira, a group of adults from Central – North Central Africa has left their homeland to the north. In present-day Egypt, this group splits into two branches, one heading toward present-day Algeria, one moving to the Middle East and meeting Neaderthals in present-day Saudi Arabia – Iraq. Many heterosexual marriages happened. The Neaderthals became extinct shortly after (about 30,000-50,000 years ago) but they managed to leave their lineage in the genome of ancient Homo sapiens.

After that, the ancestors, with many individuals having crossed Neanderthals, split into two groups, one going towards Europe and staying, one moving to Southeast Asia. On the way, in today’s Iran-Pakistan region, our ancestors met a mysterious extinct species, temporarily called “Hominin extinct 1”, mixed with blood again.

This group continues on to what is probably near the border of today’s Myanmar Myanmar, branching again. The group heads north to meet the extinct Denisovans, which reside in present-day Tibet, and fall in love again.

The group turns south across Southeast Asia – which may have once remained a strip of land – to the area of Indonesia. They are called Australo – Papuan, ancestors of present-day Indonesians and Australians. The group met again and fell in love with another group of Denisovans.

Their descendants continue to split. A group with similar genetic characteristics to Filipinos now moves to the Philippines and mate with the Denisovans again; while the group headed towards Australia and on their way across the area around the island of Flores in present-day Indonesia, they mingled with the unidentified fourth extinct humanity, known as “extinct Hominin 2”.

The exciting research has just been published in the journal PNAS.

The researchers recommend that people should not return to some of the Marshall Islands because radiation is still above safe threshold.

The researchers recommend that people should not return to some of the Marshall Islands because radiation is still above safe threshold.

Some of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, such as Bikini Atoll and Enewetak, are still more radioactive than Chernobyl and Fukushima, although more than 60 years have passed since the US tested nuclear weapons in the region. this. When testing plutonium-239 and 240 isotopes in soil samples, the researchers found that some islands are 10 to 1,000 times more radioactive than Fukushima and about 10 times the Chernobyl forbidden zone.

In 2016, a team at Columbia University in New York published a paper in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on background gamma radiation north of the Marshall Islands, including the islands of Enewetak, Bikini and Rongelap. . They found that the radioactivity on Bikini Island was higher than previously reported, so they decided to conduct further research on radioactivity on the islands.

On July 15, the research team published three new works in the PNAS journal about four Marshall Islands atolls: Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik. The amount of gamma radiation in Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island on Enewetak Atoll and Naen Island on Rongelap Atoll is much higher than an island in the southern Marshall Islands that scientists refer to.

Mushroom cloud in Romeo nuclear bomb explosion on Bikini island. (Photo: News.com.au).

The amount of radioactivity on Bikini and Naen Islands was so high that it exceeded the maximum limit agreed by the United States and the Marshall Islands in the 1990s. The researchers also discovered Runit and Enjebi islands of Enewetak Atoll, as well as Bikini and Naen Island, have a high level of radioactivity in the soil.

In the second study, the scientists worked with professional divers to collect 130 acres of land from the Bravo Castle crater in Bikini Atoll. Some isotopes like plutonium-239 and -240, americium-241 and bismuth-207 are higher than others in the Marshall Islands.

In the third study, the authors examined more than 200 fruits, mainly coconuts and pineapples on 11 islands of 4 atolls north of the Marshall Islands. As a result, the amount of cesium-137 in many fruits on Bikini and Rongelap islands is well above the safe threshold.

The Japanese expert plans not to let the water wash away the results of the To Lich river

Japanese experts considered the method during the rainy season, when the West Lake water was discharged, it was not carried away to wash the experimental results of the To Lich river cleaning.

As expected, after 2 months, Nhat Viet Environment Improvement Joint Stock Company (JVE) will report to Prime Minister, People’s Committee of Hanoi City on a pilot project to clean a section of To Lich river and a corner of West Lake by technology. Nano – Japanese Bioreactor.

However, the discharge of more than 1 million cubic meters of water from the West Lake to the To Lich River affected the results, JVE had to apply for a pilot for another 2 months.

After postponing the announcement of results, yesterday, JVE had a press conference by the West Lake to inform about the upcoming pilot plan, the solutions so that the next water discharges and storms do not affect the To Lich river.

15 minutes notice and then flush
Mr. Nguyen Tuan Anh, JVE Chairman, confirmed that he did not receive notification of water discharge directly.

JVE technical staff has received a notification of water discharge at about 9:30 am on July 9, shortly after about 10-15 minutes, Hanoi Sewerage Company conducted the water discharge.

Discharging 1.5 million m3 of West Lake water into To Lich River, Japanese experts could not cope.

According to Mr. Tuan Anh, when receiving the discharge notification, both Japanese experts and JVE were passive, the pilot unit could not respond in 10-15 minutes.

1.5 million m3 / day as in the last flush, is 10 times the amount of water flowing from 280 discharges flowing along the To Lich river. This amount of water does not flow through 280 sluices but only flows into one sluice at the head of the river, exceeding the original estimate of Japanese experts.

Japanese experts have calculated from the beginning, despite the heavy rain, the upstream flow is not as large as the direct discharge of 1.5 million cubic meters of water recently.

Dr Takeba Akira, an advisor at the Japan-Japan Trade and Environment Promotion Organization, said: “With the West Lake water swept away beneficial microorganisms triggered by the Bioreactor plates, we are not responsible for any unit. both, this is an objective

Dr. Takeba Akira.

Regarding the ongoing Lich river cleaning projects, Japanese experts also said that the problem of cleaning the river is not simply the discharge of West Lake water or cleaning with Japanese technology.

According to him, the river must have water for input, which To Lich River now relies entirely on sewage flowing from 280 sluices. Therefore, it is advisable to clean the inside of the river first and then let the water in, increasing both the water flow and creating river flows. Then the beneficial organisms created by the nano machines will be distributed from the beginning to the end of the source.

“2 solutions of drainage company and Japanese expert, if combined, will revive the To Lich river properly”, Mr. Tuan Anh added.

To Lich River piloted another 2 months.

Build “apartment building”, do not allow water to wash away microorganisms
Japanese experts have developed plans so that the Bioreactor placed in the river bed will still activate the microorganisms and retain these creatures, no matter if discharging West Lake water or discharging more strongly, it will not be washed away. result.

“Experimental bodies in the To Lich river are like apartment buildings, microorganisms are the same as the people living in that apartment building. Soon, we will apply the biological measures to prevent the apartment building from being washed away by floodwaters. “

Biotech-applied pallets will help protect
The biofilter media will help protect, prevent water from swept away beneficial microorganisms when draining water.

Regarding operating costs, the Japanese expert confirmed that this project was 100% funded from Japan at the beginning, so even though it lasted for 2 months, Japan continued to sponsor, the Vietnamese side did not have to pay any cost. come on.

Japan is still sponsoring and piloting completely free the To Lich river cleaning project.

incident so we are trying to fix it. “

Magical mental health effects of enchanted youth drinks

A delicious green drink can be a golden key to helping treat anxiety, a fairly common and complex mental health problem.

Scientists from Kumamoto University (Japan) have proven that their country’s famous matcha tea powder not only makes delicious drinks but also good for health. Experiments in mice show that it directly affects two important neurochemicals and is a powerful anti-anxiety agent.

Matcha is the ingredient that has made many popular drinks over time – (artwork from the internet).

According to Dr. Yuki Kurauchi, MD, lead author of the study, in animal experiments, matcha has shown a direct effect on the two dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the brain, helping them function. stronger. These are the two systems that help produce dopamine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitters.

Dopamine, dubbed the “happy hormone”, increases dopamine to help us feel happy, satisfied, motivated in all life activities, boosting the brain … Meanwhile, abundant serotonin helps you increase ability to regulate mood and appetite, sleep better, increase awareness … Deficiency of these two hormones can lead to low mood, ease anxiety and even anxiety disorders, a fairly complex syndrome journal in psychiatry.

Matcha is a famous Japanese green tea powder, the leaves of green tea (tea) are finely ground. Green tea plants used to make matcha must be grown under 90% shade and cared for in a special way by indigenous people. Matcha is often used to make a variety of drinks and is also a material for coloring, flavoring for food.

Dr. Kurachi added that in order to make a more positive assertion, an epidemiological study on humans is needed. However, the evidence they have collected is sufficient to show that matcha brings certain benefits to human health.

The research has just been published in the scientific journal Journal of Functional Foods.

The truth to know about sunscreen

70% of seafarers always have their lips “naked”, while this is an area prone to melanoma. Remember to use sunscreen to protect your lips.

>>> Interesting secrets about sunscreen

What is SPF?
SPF is an indicator of the ability to protect the skin from UVB rays. To calculate the SPF, manufacturers must test the skin with sunscreen and without sunscreen, see how long the skin is red.

Note, SPF and sunscreen protection do not increase linearly with each other. For example, SPF 30 does not provide double the protection of SPF 15. The difference is that SPF 15 protects the skin from 93% UVB and the SPF 30 protects the skin from 97% radiation.

Applying sunscreen is a therapy to keep the skin young and healthy. It can become your daily routine. If you are using sunscreen, read carefully what you need to know below:

There is a difference between sunblock and suncreen
These terms are often used interchangeably, but in reality they have differences:

Sunblock is a product line that prevents UV rays from being absorbed into the skin by zinc oxide or titanium oxide. These substances are not absorbed into the skin because they are only on the surface of the skin. Therefore, to fully utilize the sunblock, you must apply a layer evenly, without leaving a place. Pros: Durable grip, does not penetrate the skin so it heals for the skin. However, because you have to apply a thick layer, the face skin is easily greasy and shiny.

Suncreen is a product line with UV absorbing substances to neutralize its harmful effects. Pros: Does not create a white film on the skin should look more natural than sunblock. However, their performance is not stable, so you must regularly add cream after 3-4 hours. In addition, the product may cause an allergic reaction to sensitive skin.

The choice of cream is depending on the preferences of each person. When using, you should note:

Use sunblock, you should apply lotion first and then sunscreen (because sunblock is on the surface of the skin, if applied first, it will prevent the cream from promoting its use).
Use Sunscreen, you should apply sunscreen first then lotion (because sunscreen needs to soak into the skin to work).
Sunblock is often a better choice for sensitive and irritated skin from chemicals in suncreen.
Find out carefully what is on the product label you decide to choose between sunblock and suncreen.

Use both skin creams simultaneously
You often think that just using sunscreen is okay, actually not enough. Doctors recommend adding an equal amount of lotion to the sun-exposed areas on your body and face (approximately 2 tablespoons).

Usually use
If you spend most of your time outdoors, you need a plan to use sunscreen all day

The sunscreen effect of the cream lasts for about 2 hours, so it is best to reapply it every one and a half to 2 hours. Remember, not a high SPF cream will work longer, this time period applies to all sunscreens.

Do not think that sunscreen is waterproof
Conventional sunscreens do not have a waterproof function, so manufacturers are not allowed to write on their products with this feature. However, they can use the word “water resistant” to promote the exaggerated product.

Please check the labels carefully. If you use water-resistant sunscreens, you may need to reapply them after about 40 minutes.

Don’t forget to protect your lips
The lips are right in the middle of the face and they are exposed to the sun just like the rest of your body. So they also need to be protected.

According to a survey, up to 70% of seafarers always let their lips “naked”, while this is an area prone to malignant tumors. So make sure to use lip balm and sunscreen to protect your lips.

The safety of sprays
Sunscreen spray is relatively new and convenient to use. However, many people are concerned about its safety. Therefore, you should carefully study the use as well as contraindications on the package to have an appropriate choice.

Sunburn to what extent can skin cancer
The degree of sunburn depends on genetic factors and environmental factors exposed. However, the darker the skin, the less sunburn and the lower the risk of skin cancer. In contrast, fair-skinned white people are more likely to get skin cancer.

Sunscreen and impact on the ecosystem
Between 2015 and 2018, one in five coral reefs in the world died, partly because of sunscreen. In May 2018, Hawaiian lawmakers enacted a bill to ban sunscreens containing oxybenzone and octinoxate that are harmful to coral reefs on the island.

Ingredients in sunscreen are safe for health
There is plenty of evidence to show that sunscreens are safe, but science has so far not fully understood the health effects of using sunscreens for a long time.

Some studies show that para-aminobenzoic (PABA) and benzophenone sunscreens can irritate certain skin types, leading to rashes and rashes. The chemicals in sunscreens such as avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, and ecamsule are likely to enter the bloodstream but the consequences are unclear.

When to remove old sunscreen
Shelf life of sunscreen is usually three years under normal room temperature conditions. If placed in an environment that is too hot or too cold, the quality of the product will be affected, thereby disabling their function.

Sunscreen can be used on other areas of the skin
The American Academy of Dermatology recommends that the community use sunscreen on areas where it is exposed to the sun directly before going out for 15 minutes. For areas where clothing is supported, simply apply an appropriate amount to the skin. For areas of direct sunlight, reapply sunscreen every two hours.

The moment the ISS station flies past on the sun

NASA shared a stunning picture depicting the tiny shadow of the ISS station against the giant surface of the Sun.

The composite image capturing the moment the International Space Station (ISS) flies between the Earth and the Sun, by photographer Rainee Colacurcio, was voted by NASA to be a beautiful Astronomy Photo of the Day. Although the ISS is closer to Earth, the orbital lab looks still very small in front of the massive surface of the Sun in the background.

The composite photo was taken by photographer Rainee Colacurcio from the ground. (Photo: NASA).

“That’s not the sunspot. It’s the International Space Station (ISS) flying through the sun,” explains Colacurcio. “The Sunspot has a dark shadow in the center and a semi-dark area with brighter colors and no solar cells. On the contrary, the ISS is a complex, multi-roofed apparatus, one of the the largest and most complex human ever created, “Colacurcio said.

According to Colacurcio, passing in front of the Sun is not too rare for the ISS station to fly around the Earth every 90 minutes. But very few people can set the right time and prepare the right equipment to create a great photo.

In fact, the image shared by NASA is a combination of two photos, one of the ISS station passing in front of the Sun and the other taken at the same time detailing the sun’s surface. The composite image also shows that the Sun lacks dark spots. These are dark patches that temporarily appear on the Sun’s surface and indicate areas with relatively lower temperatures around them due to the magnetic field lines impacting the convection. The number of black spots at each time varies greatly over the Sun’s 11-year cycle.

“Black spots are rare on the Sun since the beginning of the minimum phase, in which the Sun is very little active. For reasons that researchers do not fully understand, the number of black spots appears at the extreme stage. Previous and present urination is abnormally low, “explains Colacurcio.

Those who sacrifice for the success of the Apollo program

The Apollo program of putting people on the moon is the result of the efforts and silent sacrifices of hundreds of thousands of people.

July 20, 1969 marked in the history of mankind when the Apollo 11 landed on the Moon. For Neil Armstrong to place the American flag on the surface of the Moon, making the first footprint on it, a well-researched plan, operated by thousands of people. This special program also has many memorable numbers.

Neil Armstrong planted an American flag on the surface of the Moon. (Photo: NASA).

400,000 people support one person
Neil Armstrong is one of NASA’s outstanding pilots. When he landed on the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, the first successful or failed landing all depended on the man’s skill, reaction ability and proficiency. With the gravel fields ahead, the alarm ringing and the fuel running out, Armstrong drove the spacecraft to the ground.

But in a number of conversations and interviews about the landing, Armstrong has always been modest when it comes to this historic achievement. Instead, he emphasized that hundreds of thousands of people contributed to the success of the program.

NASA estimates that a total of 400,000 men and women across the US participate in the Apollo program, from astronauts, flight control specialists, contractors to food suppliers, engineers, and scientists. learn, doctor, nurse, mathematician and programmer.

Flight control specialists follow the journey of Apollo 11.

Viewed from Apollo 11 flight – a flight to help people land on the Moon. Not only did Armstrong receive Buzz Aldrin’s support aboard the ship, there was also a room filled with flight control specialists. In each shift, in addition to the core team of about 20-30 people, there are hundreds of engineers in Houston and experts at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston are on call for advice whenever the computer issues an alarm.

The flight control center is supported by ground communication stations around the world, a team of engineers who make the landing craft at Grumman Group and all subcontractors. Besides, there is a support team from senior managers to coffee sellers, the number has reached thousands. Multiply that number by every other part of the project (rocket, astronaut suit, communications, fuel, design, training, from launching to returning to Earth …). 400,000 people still seem modest. All of these have supported the single man’s action.

Average age of Apollo astronauts: 38
Armstrong was not a specially selected pilot for his first moon landing, his crew was the next option in the rotation. If the Apollo 11 can not land, it is likely that Pete Conrad, commander of the Apollo 12, will be the first man to land on the Moon. In fact, despite representing the entire human race, the Apollo astronauts have the same age, biography, competence, and training.

“In my opinion it is important that we remember how unique and carefully selected the Apollo project team is,” said Teasel Muir-Harmony, who is in charge of displaying the Apollo spacecraft in Bao. Smithsonian National Aerospace Museum in Washington DC, shared. Each member of the Apollo 11 crew was born in 1930, they used to be in the army, were pilots.

At that time Armstrong was 38, the youngest co-commander on the Apollo ship (along with Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan). Charlie Duke, the 36-year-old pilot of the Apollo 16 landing craft, is the youngest man to land on the Moon. The oldest person to walk on the Moon was astronaut Alan Shepard, flying aboard Apollo 14 in 1971. Shepard was 47 years old.

12 astronauts once set foot and drove on the Moon

There are 33 astronauts on flights during the Apollo Moon landing program. Among them, 27 people fly to the Moon, 24 people orbit the Moon but only 12 people set foot on the surface. They represent “humanity” and face the challenge of transmitting that experience to a global audience.

8 NASA astronauts died during the Apollo program
Before the first three crew of the Apollo 7 mission departed in October 1968, eight astronauts on the Apollo program were killed. The first man who died in 1964 was Theodore Freeman when his plane, the T-38 trainer, hit a bird, broke the cockpit cover and the engine stopped working. Despite his escape, Freeman was too close to the ground and died due to the impact.

On February 28, 1966, the main crew for the mission Gemini 9, Elliot See and Charles Bassett prepared to land the T-38 aircraft on St Louis. Due to cloudiness obscuring the runway, See misplaced a turn and crashed into the building where their spacecraft was being built. Two pilots were killed instantly.

In 1967, NASA prepared to launch the first Apollo. But the spacecraft is constantly broken and commander Gus Grissom knows it. In an uncomfortable mood, he hung a lemon outside the Apollo ship simulator in Cape Canaveral base.

On January 27, 1967, the crew, including Grissom, Ed White (the first American to walk in space) and Roger Chaffee, lay in the seats on the launch pad to test the entire spacecraft. The test has failed. Within seconds, flames burned up the crew.

Later that year, Clifton Williams died in another T-38 crash and Edward Givens died in a traffic accident. All eight astronauts and six Soviet astronauts were commemorated with a stele left by the Apollo 15 crew on the Moon.

Only one woman was present in the control room of the Apollo 11 launch
The equipment control specialist, JoAnn Morgan, is the only woman in the control room of the Apollo 11 launch at Cape Canaveral base. As an engineer, a 21-channel guest lady as well as the stability of all Saturn missile tracking systems 5. “Launching is a controlled explosion. You are always a little scared but you still have to watch it, “Morgan said.

As one of the few women in senior positions, Morgan regularly faced gender discrimination, especially when she started the job. “I received obscene calls, some rude comments in the elevator and the touches in the dining area. After a while, most of those actions were gone because people realized I worked really hard. serious, “recounted Morgan.

What is digestion only? Some targets self-consumed in surgery? How long does it take to spend?

Self-draining threads are the only commonly used type of medicine in suturing wounds. There are many types of indigestion, each of which will fit a different type of wound. Today, let us learn about some types of self-consumption targets and how much time will be spent on self-discharge !!!

What is digestion only?

Self-draining threads are mainly made from organic synthetic fibers. After a period of using this thread to suture the mouth of the wound, they will dissolve by performing hydrolysis. There are many types of indigestion that are used during surgery, depending on the characteristics and location of the wounds.

Sew the wound with self-draining thread.

Wounds on the surface of the skin usually use the normal thread to sew and then it will be cut later. This thread trimming can be carried out at home or to health facilities to ensure safety. With wounds in internal organs, cutting is not possible. At this time, people will resort to self-consumption. Wounds that heal long, need a long time for the mouth to heal properly, they will use the type of self-target that has long hydrolysis time.

In surgery, self-consumption is very convenient, because it will reduce the pain that patients suffer.

Some types of digestion time and their respective digestion time
In surgery, a number of commonly used targets are polyglactin 910, polydioxanone, polyglecaprone, simple catgut, chromite catgut, etc. Let’s take a closer look at these threads!

Surgical polyglactin 910 only

Polyglactin 910 will dissolve by hydrolysis.

This thread is synthesized from glycotic, lactic acid, copolymer acid, outside is covered with a layer of polyglactin 370 and calcium stearate. When performing oral sutures of wounds, polyglactin 910 will be softened when penetrating the tissues and limiting tissue irritation, keeping the mouth sutures quite well.

Polyglactin 910 will dissolve by hydrolysis. It takes up to 90 days for this type of thread to be fully absorbed and dissolved by the body.

Self-consumed polydioxanone only

Polydioxanone is synthesized from polimer. This component only surgery has a higher stage, easier to control in the mouth of the wound. Polydioxanone is indicated for tissue-related wounds and tissues that require long term support. Heart-related surgeries, micro-neurosurgery should never use polydioxanone.

Compared to the toughness of this thread, it is so high that it takes up to 90 days for polydioxanone to completely dissolve into the body.

Self-target polyglecaprone only

The ingredients that make up this thread are glycolic acid and caprolactone. Use polyglecaprone for suturing of soft tissues, short support time as well as rapid recovery. This type of thread is easy to use, when performing oral sutures wounds will not cause pain to the patient, the risk of infection is very low.

Like other types of surgery, polyglecaprone will also be self-absorbed, dissolve into the body through hydrolysis. Usually this process lasts for 20 days.

Self-target only simple catgut

Simple catgut is derived from all natural sources when it is made from sheep’s mucus and serum in cow intestines. Their composition contains 97 to 98% of collagen that can be absorbed, twisted or single-stranded, making them extremely durable.

This type of surgery is absorbed very quickly by the body through the enzyme reaction process. Typically, the length of the thread lasts for about 10 days and the thread will completely dissolve within 70 days afterwards. Patients with cancer or malnutrition should consider using this thread because the process of enzyme reactions takes place faster than usual.

Only catgut chromite surgery

This thread is synthesized from the mucus of sheep’s intestines and the serum in cow’s intestines.

Like simple catgut, chromite catgut is also synthesized from the mucus of sheep’s intestines and the serum found in cow intestines. Collagen content accounts for 97 to 98%. However, the difference between these two types is that chromite catgut is treated with chromic salt. This salt works to slow down the reaction of enzymatic decomposition, making the ability to hold stitches better. Types that are only naturally derived will usually increase the ability of tissue to react more than types that are only naturally derived. However, this type of thread is also considered to be very safe in handling surgical incisions.

Chromite catgut is suitable for incisions with short recovery time. Self-sufficiency time is within 14 to 21 days.

Has the Earth ever been hot like it is now?

Have you ever traveled in the Arctic? How does it feel like it’s cold outside in Celsius? But maybe if you lived 56 million years ago, you probably would have felt differently.

That’s because tens of millions of years ago, the Earth was in a period of global warming and also known by the scientific name of Paleo-Eocene Thermal Maximum. During this period, the Earth’s temperatures were so hot that both poles reached almost tropical temperatures. In other words, both the Arctic and Antarctic today also have temperatures at hot thresholds and tropical-like landscapes.

The Earth has experienced extremely hot periods many times. Especially the poles also froze and thawed countless times. Now the Earth is warming but very different from the old days. It’s just as hot as it used to be but now there’s the impact of climate change, leading to a record high heat record every month.

The Earth’s climate has fluctuated naturally over tens of thousands of years, the planet’s rotation around the Sun has gradually changed, resulting in a change from season to light. Part of the result of these fluctuations is the fact that the Earth has experienced ice ages and warmer periods.

But to create a Paleo-Eocene-like period will require more than a change in the tilt of the Earth’s axis or its path around the Sun. But besides that, another invisible culprit can also create the typical climate of the Paleo-Eocene period, which is CO2.

Greenhouse gases, including CO2, were responsible for causing high temperatures across the planet’s surfaces during the Paleo-Eocene period. But how to increase the concentration of CO2 without the presence of humans? Scientists do not seem entirely certain.

Sébastien Castelltort, a geologist at the University of Geneva, said the cause could be due to volcanic activity is strong, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. CO2 then covers the Earth and makes sunlight unable to escape, thereby causing global warming, releasing glaciers at the poles. As the ice at both poles gradually melted, methane, a greenhouse gas many times more toxic than CO2, unintentionally escapes.

Take the Permian-Triassic extinction event, for example, that occurred several million years before the rise of the dinosaurs and took control of the planet. It is really a major climate disaster for the Earth. This warming event happened 252 million years ago and is extremely serious. This event is caused by volcanic activity causing climate chaos and destruction of many species.

Paleontologist Stuart Sutherland at the University of British Columbia told Live Science that at the time of the severe drought, the plants were dead and the Saharah desert spread across the continent. The temperature was almost beyond the endurance of the creatures.

It’s not clear what greenhouse gas concentrations were in the Permian-Triassic period, but they are much more likely than they are today. Some climate models predict that greenhouse gas concentrations would then have reached 3,500 parts per million ppm. While there are still only just over 400ppm.

But to lead to the Permian-Triassic extinction event, the Earth must take thousands of years to reach such a terrible temperature milestone. Specifically, according to some studies, the time can last up to 150 thousand years. In the Paleo-Eocene period, temperatures can increase extremely quickly when it takes only 10-20 thousand years to achieve such a terrible temperature.

And today’s warming on Earth seems to take only 150 years.

That is the big difference between climate change and global warming today compared to the warming of the past. The extreme and extremely fast developments make the consequences of climate change now extremely unpredictable.

Castelltort said his concern at the moment was not only that the planet was getting warmer, but that we did not know everything was moving so fast that humans could not adapt.

He said that no climate experts dare to assert that the current pace of global warming has no serious consequences. It’s just that we don’t know what the future climate scenario will be like.